The Imagined Underworld: Sex, Crime, and Vice in Porfirian Mexico City
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Responding to the potential loss of the faithful in Mexico and elsewhere, Pope Leo XIII issued the encyclical Rerum Novarum , calling on the Church to become involved in social problems. In Mexico, some Catholic laymen supported the abolition of debt peonage on landed estates, which kept peasants tied to work there because they were unable to pay off their debts. The Church itself had lost lands during the Liberal Reform in the mid-nineteenth century, so it could voice support for the peasants' plight. The Church's success in the new initiatives can be seen as Zapatistas in Morelos carried out no anticlerical actions during the Mexican Revolution,  and many fighters wore the Virgin of Guadalupe on their hats.
The Law of Monuments gave jurisdiction over archeological sites to the federal government. This allowed the expropriation and expulsion of peasants who had been cultivating crops on the archeological sites, most systematically done at Teotihuacan.
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Former cavalry officer and archeologist Leopoldo Batres was Inspector of Archeological Monuments and wielded considerable power. Along the wide, tree-lined boulevard, Paseo de la Reforma , laid out by Emperor Maximilian between the National Palace and Chapultepec Castle , was transformed as a site of historical memory, with statues commemorating figures of Mexican history and important historical events. The official centennial festivities were concentrated in the month of September, but there were events during the centennial year outside of September.
In September the central core of Mexico city was decorated and lit with electric lights many bedecked with flowers. Immediately following the centennial month, there was a book published, detailing the day by day events of the festivities, which included inaugurations of buildings and statues, receptions for dignitaries, military parades, and allegorical and historical processions. The high points of the celebrations were on 15 September, Diaz's 80th birthday, and 16 September, the centennial of Hidalgo's Grito de Dolores , considered the starting point of Mexico's struggle for independence in On Friday, 15 September, the day was marked by a huge parade representing the arc of Mexican history, focusing on the conquest of Mexico, the struggle for independence in the early nineteenth century, and the liberal reform of the mid-nineteenth century.
At 11 p. Diaz stood on the balcony of the National Palace and with the ringing of the bell from Father Hidalgo's church in Dolores, Diaz proclaimed "Viva Mexico.
On 16 September, Diaz with an array of dignitaries attending inaugurated, the Monument to Independence at a major intersection glorieta of Paseo de la Reforma. Some 10, Mexican troops and contingents of foreign soldiers marched at the monument as part of the inaugural ceremonies. At the ceremony, the French ambassador returned the ceremonial keys of Mexico City that were given to General Forey in during the French Intervention.
He inaugurated a new insane asylum in Mixcoac on the first of September. On 2 September, the pillar of the baptismal font in Hidalgo's church was brought to the capital with great ceremony and placed in the National Museum, with some 25, children viewing the event. An important issue for the modernizing Mexican state was health and hygiene, and an exhibition was inaugurated on September 2.
On September 6 some 38, school children honored the Mexican flag. A new normal school to train teachers was inaugurated with Diaz and foreign delegates attending. Also occurring during the festivities was the Nation Congress of Pedagogy. The Spanish monarchy sent a special ambassador to the festivities, who was enthusiastically received. Diaz gave an enormous reception in his honor. The Spanish ambassador, the Marquis of Polavieja returned items of historical importance to Mexico, including the uniform of Father Morelos, a portrait, and other relics of independence in a ceremony at the National Palace, with the diplomatic corps in attendance, as well as Mexican army officers.
The king of Spain conveyed through his special ambassador the honor of the Order of Charles III on Diaz, the highest distinction for sovereigns and heads of state. Others holding the honor were the Russian czar, and the monarchs of Germany and Austria. Mexican Secretary of Education, Justo Sierra attended. There was a large number of journalists from the U. The German government had an honor guard for the monument of German naval officers. Presidential-challenger Francisco I.
Madero had been jailed during the presidential elections, but he escaped north across the U. Fighting broke out in the state of Morelos, just south of Mexico City, as well as on the border with the U. The Mexican Federal Army was incapable of putting down these disparate uprisings.
Reyes accepted exile and went to Europe, on a mission to study the military in Germany. Although Reyes had been a political rival, according to one historian, exiling him was a serious political miscalculation, since he was loyal and effective and the political opposition was growing, adding to the anti-reelectionists.
He also began informal negotiations with anti-reelectionist rebels in early Rebel forces were to demobilize. He died in Paris in El porfiriato. La vida social [ Modern History of Mexico. El Porfiriato , social life ] in Spanish. Speckman Guerra, Elisa Stevens, D. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons Bunker, Steven B. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn , pp. New York: Cambridge University Press , pp.
Katz, "The Liberal Republic and the Porfiriato", pp.
By James Alex Garza - James Alex Garza
Zapata and the Mexican Revolution. New York: Vintage Revised edition.
Wilmington DL: Scholarly Resources Liverpool: Liverpool University Press Hale, Charles A. Princeton: Princeton University Press Bunker and Beezley, "Porfiriato: Interpretations", p. Knight, Alan, The Mexican Revolution , vol. Cambridge University Press Coatsworth, John H. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn , p. Rankine, Margaret. Anderson, Rodney D. Michael C. Meyer and William H.
New York: Oxford University Press , pp. Historia y. Public Schools and Catholic Education in Mexico, ". Hispanic American Historical Review Nov. Vaughan, Mary Kay. Lewis, eds. Durham: Duke University Press , p. Pilcher, Jeffrey M. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press Schell, Patience A. The Americas , April , pp. Piccato, Pablo City of Suspects: Crime in Mexico City, — Buffington, Robert; Piccato, Pablo The Americas.
Garza, James Alex Katz, "The Liberal Republic and the Porfiriato," p. Baldwin, Deborah J. Urbana: University of Illinois Press Katz,"The Liberal Republic and the Porfiriato", pp.
History of Mexico
Mexico City: Rondero y Treppiedi The material below unless otherwise indicated is taken from this unpaginated work. Garner, Paul. New York: Longman , pp. Stanford: Stanford University Press pp. Agostoni, Claudia. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press Beezley, William H. Beezley et al.
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Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resources Buffington, Robert and William E. Meyer and Wm. Beezley, eds. New York: Oxford University Press Frank, Patrick.
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Posada's Broadsheets: Mexican Popular Imagery French, William. Hispanic American Historical Review 72, no. Stanford: Stanford University Press Porfirio Diaz. Harlow: Pearson Education Garza, James A. Macias-Gonzalez and Anne Rubenstein, Haber, Stephen H. Industry and Underdevelopment: The Industrialization of Mexico, Hibino, Barbara.
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New York: Palgrave MacMillan Johns, Michael. Austin: University of Texas Press Kuhn, Gary. Journal of Sports History 13, no.
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Lear, John. May — Famous 41 , McCrossen, Alexis, ed.