Shareholder Value (German Edition)
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As a single member of a group of companies, the respective family-owned company retains entrepreneurial independence, but through joint inter-company activities it can gain a market position that only large companies could otherwise offer. Today's groups are regional, national, and even international. The inter-company cooperation of the group is usually organized from a legally independent center and covers a variety of areas such as purchasing, marketing, logistics, IT solutions, financing services, consulting or training, and so on.
In Germany, around , companies from around 45 different branches of trade, craft trades, and the service industry are currently grouped together, resulting in around groups. The importance of small and medium-sized enterprises is also evident from the fact that more than , small and medium-sized enterprises with about 4. The focus of the association's work is the formation of networks, the organization of events, and political advocacy.
The German word Stand refers to an estate , from the medieval model of society, under which a person's position was defined by birth or occupation. There were three principal levels, the upper one being the aristocracy, the middle one the Mittelstand the free bourgeoisie of the cities, and the lower one the peasants. Today, the term is used with two meanings.
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The first refers to small and medium-sized enterprises SME; German, kleine und mittlere Unternehmen or KMU , as defined by number of employees and turnover. The second meaning refers to any family-run or -owned business not necessarily a SME. Note that the correct term to describe households of middling income would be Mittelschicht , with the English translation middle class. However, when assessed based on size by population, the city states of Hamburg and Bremen lead with and large medium-sized enterprises per 1 million inhabitants, respectively.
Mittelstand companies are "highly focused, achieving unprecedented efficiencies by designing a business model with a razor-thin focus and learning to do the one thing really well"; then to "compensate for their razor-thin focus.
In the post-reunification recession, it seemed only natural to German workers to offer flexibility on wages and hours in return for greater job security. Many Mittelstand companies are export-oriented.
Shareholder Value Beteiligungen AG, SVE:FRA summary - niggtagjeesifa.ml
They focus on innovative and high-value manufactured products, and occupy worldwide niche market leadership positions in numerous B2B segments. The Mittelstand model is most specifically defined in the publication "The Best of German Mittelstand" ,  which summarizes the distinct management model that "dovetails strategy, leadership and governance principles, with core processes in a unique blend, creating a finely tuned process. Small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs are financially well-positioned. According to studies by IfM Bonn and the University of Siegen in , their equity ratio has been rising steadily for years.
At the same time, SME liabilities to banks are falling in relation to their total assets. For the first time, small and medium-sized enterprises as a whole have a higher equity ratio than large companies. Only micro-enterprises continue to have lower capitalization despite high growth rates. To prevent their debt conditions from deteriorating, many small and medium-sized enterprises—as well as the larger family businesses—have increased their equity capital through retained earnings. This was also positively supported by the reduction in corporate taxes.
At the same time, many small and medium-sized enterprises are reducing supplier credits and short-term bank liabilities. Although SMEs continue to prefer bank loans, despite alternative means of financing, the importance of equity financing is likely to increase. For example, almost all companies will have to face increasing digitization with additional investment in information technologies to maintain their future competitiveness.
However, to protect bank loans, IT technologies are not well suited due to the company-specific solutions and the generally high loss of value. Figures from the British government state that they employed Whilst continuing to grow, a recent study  which performed a comparison between German and British successful mid-cap companies suggests that British firms are far more short-term orientated in terms of management and policy raising the question whether the UK Mittelstand can endure over time in the same manner as the German equivalent, something the British government hopes to work on by embracing a longer term place.
While the Mittelstand has served the German economy well since World War II , it is now faced with questions about how it will adapt to the digital revolution of the 21st century. Many of the industrial machines produced by the Mittelstand are quickly being connected to the Internet of Things IoT , from manufacturing equipment that can warn owners when material is low to cars that are connected to digital entertainment systems.
Strides have recently been made by firms such as Trumpf , which in October unveiled a digital platform called Axoom that can connect machines built by Trumpf and others to collect data that can be used to help firms improve their operating efficiency. Germany's National Academy of Science and Engineering Acatech has addressed the challenge by introducing the concept of "Industrie 4.
The cause of Industrie 4. The government has invested million euros in Industrie 4. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Industry 4. Retrieved 28 December Financial Times. Seller Inventory I Condition: Brand New.
THE INSTITUTIONS SUPPORTING SHAREHOLDER VALUE
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